Giant panda

In today's world, Giant panda has become increasingly important. From its origins to its relevance today, Giant panda has been the subject of study, debate and controversy. Its impact covers multiple aspects, from society, politics, economy, culture, technology and more. In this article, we will explore the importance of Giant panda and its influence in different areas. Through deep and detailed analysis, we will seek to better understand the role Giant panda plays in our daily lives and the world at large.

Giant panda
Giant panda at the Ocean Park Hong Kong
CITES Appendix I (CITES)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Ailuropoda
Species:
A. melanoleuca
Binomial name
Ailuropoda melanoleuca
David, 1869
Subspecies
Giant panda range

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), also known as the panda bear or simply panda, is a bear species endemic to China. It is characterised by its black-and-white coat and rotund body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the red panda, a neighboring musteloid. Adult individuals average 100 to 115 kg (220 to 254 lb), and are typically 1.2 to 1.9 m (3 ft 11 in to 6 ft 3 in) long. The species is sexually dimorphic, as males are typically 10 to 20% larger. The fur is white, with black patches around the eyes, ears, legs and shoulders. A thumb is visible on the bear's forepaw, which helps in holding bamboo in place for feeding. Giant pandas have adapted larger molars and expanded temporal fossa to meet their dietary requirements.

The giant panda is exclusively found in six mountainous regions in a few provinces. It is also found in elevations of up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Its diet consists almost entirely of bamboo, making the bear mostly herbivorous, despite being classified in the order Carnivora. The shoot is an important energy source, as it contains starch and is 32% protein, hence pandas evolved the ability to effectively digest starch. They are solitary, only gathering in times of mating. Females rear cubs for an average of 18 to 24 months. Potential predators of sub-adult pandas include leopards. Giant pandas heavily rely on olfactory communication to communicate with one another; scent marks are used as chemical cues and on landmarks like rocks or trees. Giant pandas live long lives, with the oldest known individual dying at 38.

As a result of farming, deforestation, and other development, the giant panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived, and it is a conservation-reliant vulnerable species. A 2007 report showed 239 pandas living in captivity inside China and another 27 outside the country. Some reports also show that the number of giant pandas in the wild is on the rise. By March 2015, the wild giant panda population had increased to 1,864 individuals. In 2016, it was reclassified on the IUCN Red List from "endangered" to "vulnerable", affirming decade-long efforts to save the panda. In July 2021, Chinese authorities also reclassified the giant panda as vulnerable. The giant panda has often served as China's national symbol, appeared on Chinese Gold Panda coins since 1982 and as one of the five Fuwa mascots of the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing.

Taxonomy

Classification

For many decades, the precise taxonomic classification of the giant panda was under debate because it shares characteristics with both bears and raccoons. In 1985, molecular studies indicate the giant panda is a true bear, part of the family Ursidae. These studies show it diverged about 19 million years ago from the common ancestor of the Ursidae; it is the most basal member of this family and equidistant from all other extant bear species. The giant panda has been referred to as a living fossil.

Etymology

Panda cubs

The word panda was borrowed into English from French, but no conclusive explanation of the origin of the French word panda has been found. The closest candidate is the Nepali word ponya, possibly referring to the adapted wrist bone of the red panda, which is native to Nepal. In many older sources, the name "panda" or "common panda" refers to the red panda (Ailurus fulgens), which was described some 40 years earlier and over that period was the only animal known as a panda.

Since the earliest collection of Chinese writings, the Chinese language has given the bear many different names, including (, ancient Chinese name for giant panda), huāxióng (花熊; "spotted bear") and zhúxióng (竹熊; "bamboo bear"). The most popular names in China today are dàxióngmāo (大熊貓; lit.'giant bear cat'), or simply xióngmāo (熊貓; lit.'bear cat'). As with the word panda in English, xióngmāo (熊貓) was originally used to describe just the red panda, but dàxióngmāo (大熊貓) and xiǎoxióngmāo (小熊猫; lit.'little bear cat') were coined to differentiate between the species.

In Taiwan, another popular name for panda is the inverted dàmāoxióng (大貓熊; lit.'giant cat bear'), though many encyclopedias and dictionaries in Taiwan still use the "bear cat" form as the correct name. Some linguists argue, in this construction, "bear" instead of "cat" is the base noun, making the name more grammatically and logically correct, which have led to the popular choice despite official writings. This name did not gain its popularity until 1988, when a private zoo in Tainan painted a sun bear black and white and created the Tainan fake panda incident.

Subspecies

The Qinling panda has a light brown and white pattern

Two subspecies of giant panda have been recognized on the basis of distinct cranial measurements, colour patterns, and population genetics.

  • The nominate subspecies, A. m. melanoleuca, consists of most extant populations of the giant panda. These animals are principally found in Sichuan and display the typical stark black and white contrasting colours.
  • The Qinling panda, A. m. qinlingensis, is restricted to the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi at elevations of 1,300–3,000 m (4,300–9,800 ft). The typical black and white pattern of Sichuan giant pandas is replaced with a light brown and white pattern. The skull of A. m. qinlingensis is smaller than its relatives, and it has larger molars.

A detailed study of the giant panda's genetic history from 2012 confirms that the separation of the Qinlin population occurred about 300,000 years ago, and reveals that the non-Qinling population further diverged into two groups, named the Minshan and the Qionglai-Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan group respectively, about 2,800 years ago.

Phylogeny

Of the eight extant species in the bear family Ursidae, the giant panda's lineage branched off the earliest.

Ursidae

Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus)

Ursinae (black, brown, sloth, sun, and polar bears)

Distribution

The giant panda is endemic to China. It is found in small, fragmented populations in six mountainous regions in the country, mainly in Sichuan, and also in neighbouring Shaanxi and Gansu. Successful habitat preservation has seen a rise in panda numbers, though loss of habitat due to human activities remains its biggest threat. In areas with a high concentration of medium to large sized mammals—such as domestic cattle, a species known to degrade the landscape—the giant panda population is generally low. This is mainly attributed to the panda's avoidance of interspecific competition. The Daxiangling Mountain population inhabits both coniferous and broadleaf forests. They frequent habitats with a healthy concentration of bamboos, typically primary forests but may also be found in secondary forest habitats. The species have been recorded at elevations of 2,400 to 3,000 m (7,900 to 9,800 ft) above sea level.

Giant pandas once roamed across southeast Asia, and were primarily found in habitats of northern Vietnam and Myanmar. Their range in China spanned much of the southeast region. By the Pleistocene, climate change effected panda populations, and the subsequent domination of modern humans led to large scale habitat loss. In 2001, it was estimated that the range of the giant panda had declined by about 99% of its range in earlier millenniums.

Description

The skull of a giant panda at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History
Close-up of giant panda at ZooParc in Beauval, France

Adults measure around 1.2 to 1.9 metres (3 feet 11 inches to 6 feet 3 inches) long, including a tail of about 10–15 cm (4–6 in), and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) tall at the shoulder. Males can weigh up to 160 kg (350 lb). Females (generally 10–20% smaller than males) can weigh as little as 70 kg (150 lb), but can also weigh up to 125 kg (276 lb). The average weight for adults is 100 to 115 kg (220 to 254 lb).

The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears. It has black fur on its ears, eye patches, limbs and shoulders. The rest of the animal's coat is white. The bear's distinctive coloration appears to serve as camouflage in both winter and summer environments as they do not hibernate. The white areas serve as camouflage in snow, while the black shoulders and legs conceal them in shade. Studies in the wild have found that when viewed from a distance, the panda displays disruptive coloration, while up close, they rely more on blending in. The black ears may be used to display aggression, while the eye patches might facilitate them identifying one another. The giant panda's thick, woolly coat keeps it warm in the cool forests of its habitat. The panda's skull shape is typical of durophagous carnivorans. It has evolved from previous ancestors to exhibit larger molars with increased complexity and expanded temporal fossa. A study revealed that a 117.5 kg (259 lb) giant panda had a biteforce of 1298.9 newtons (BFQ 151.4) at canine teeth and 1815.9 newtons (BFQ 141.8) at carnassial teeth.

The giant panda's paw has a digit similar to a thumb and five fingers; the thumb-like digit – actually a modified sesamoid bone – helps it to hold bamboo while eating. The giant panda's tail, measuring 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in), is the second-longest in the bear family, behind the sloth bear. The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity. A female named Jia Jia was the oldest giant panda ever in captivity; she was born in 1978 and died at an age of 38 on 16 October 2016.

Ecology

Diet

Pandas eating bamboo
Pandas eating, standing, and playing

Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran, the giant panda's diet is primarily herbivorous, with approximately 99% of its diet consisting of bamboo. However, the giant panda still has the digestive system of a carnivore, as well as carnivore-specific genes, and thus derives little energy and little protein from consumption of bamboo. The ability to break down cellulose and lignin is very weak, and their main source of nutrients comes from starch and hemicelluloses. The most important part of their bamboo diet is the shoots, that are rich in starch and have up to 32% protein content. Accordingly, pandas have evolved a higher capability to digest starches than strict carnivores. Raw bamboo is toxic, containing cyanide compounds. Pandas' body tissues are less able than herbivores to detoxify cyanide, but their gut microbiomes are significantly enriched in putative genes coding for enzymes related to cyanide degradation, suggesting that they have cyanide-digesting gut microbes. It has been estimated that an adult panda absorbs 54.8–66.1 mg (0.846–1.020 gr) of cyanide a day through its diet. To prevent poisoning, they have evolved anti-toxic mechanisms to protect themselves. About 80% of the cyanide is metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate and discharged in urine, while the remaining 20% is detoxified by other minor pathways.

During the shoot season (April–August), pandas store a large amount of food in preparation for the months succeeding this seasonal period, in which pandas live off a diet of bamboo leaves. The giant panda is a highly specialised animal with unique adaptations, and has lived in bamboo forests for millions of years. The average giant panda eats as much as 9 to 14 kg (20 to 31 lb) of bamboo shoots a day to compensate for the limited energy content of its diet. Ingestion of such a large quantity of material is possible and necessary because of the rapid passage of large amounts of indigestible plant material through the short, straight digestive tract. It is also noted, however, that such rapid passage of digesta limits the potential of microbial digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, limiting alternative forms of digestion. Given this voluminous diet, the giant panda defecates up to 40 times a day. The limited energy input imposed on it by its diet has affected the panda's behavior. The giant panda tends to limit its social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain to limit its energy expenditures.

Two of the panda's most distinctive features, its large size and round face, are adaptations to its bamboo diet. Anthropologist Russell Ciochon observed: " like the vegetarian gorilla, the low body surface area to body volume is indicative of a lower metabolic rate. This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary lifestyle allows the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources such as bamboo." The giant panda's round face is the result of powerful jaw muscles, which attach from the top of the head to the jaw. Large molars crush and grind fibrous plant material.

A panda feeding on bamboo

The morphological characteristics of extinct relatives of the giant panda suggest that while the ancient giant panda was omnivorous 7 million years ago (mya), it only became herbivorous some 2–2.4 mya with the emergence of A. microta. Genome sequencing of the giant panda suggests that the dietary switch could have initiated from the loss of the sole umami taste receptor, encoded by the genes TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 (also known as T1R1 and T1R3), resulting from two frameshift mutations within the T1R1 exons. Umami taste corresponds to high levels of glutamate as found in meat and may have thus altered the food choice of the giant panda. Although the pseudogenisation (conversion into a pseudogene) of the umami taste receptor in Ailuropoda coincides with the dietary switch to herbivory, it is likely a result of, and not the reason for, the dietary change. The mutation time for the T1R1 gene in the giant panda is estimated to 4.2 mya while fossil evidence indicates bamboo consumption in the giant panda species at least 7 mya, signifying that although complete herbivory occurred around 2 mya, the dietary switch was initiated prior to T1R1 loss-of-function.

Pandas eat any of 25 bamboo species in the wild, with the most common including Fargesia dracocephala and Fargesia rufa. Only a few bamboo species are widespread at the high altitudes pandas now inhabit. Bamboo leaves contain the highest protein levels; stems have less. Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two different species available in its range to avoid starvation. While primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine teeth and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available. In captivity, zoos typically maintain the giant panda's bamboo diet, though some will provide specially formulated biscuits or other dietary supplements.

Pandas will travel between different habitats if they need to, so they can get the nutrients that they need and to balance their diet for reproduction.

Interspecific interactions

Although adult giant pandas have few natural predators other than humans, young cubs are vulnerable to attacks by snow leopards, yellow-throated martens, eagles, feral dogs, and the Asian black bear. Sub-adults weighing up to 50 kg (110 lb) may be vulnerable to predation by leopards.

Giant pandas are sympatric with other large mammals and bamboo feeders, such as the takin (Budorcas taxicolor). The takin and giant panda share a similar ecological niche, and they consume the same resources. When competition for food is fierce, pandas disperse to the outskirts of takin distribution. Other possible competitors include but is not limited to, the Eurasian wild pig (Sus scrofa), Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Giant pandas avoid areas with a mid-to-high density of livestock, as they depress the vegetation. The Tibetan Plateau is the only known area where both giant and red pandas can be found. Although sharing near-identical ecological niches, competition between the two species has rarely been observed. Nearly 50% of their respective distribution overlaps, and successful coexistence is achieved through distinct habitat selection. They alter their behavioral patterns to feeding at dawn till the early twilight stages.

Pathogens and parasites

A captive female died from toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan known as Toxoplasma gondii that infects most warm-blooded animals, including humans. They are likely susceptible to diseases from Baylisascaris schroederi, a parasitic nematode known to infect giant panda intestines. This nematode species is known to give pandas baylisascariasi, a deadly disease that kills more wild pandas than any other cause. Additionally, the population is threatened by canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus, rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine coronavirus. Bacteria, such as Clostridium welchii, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, may also be lethal.

Behavior

The giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the Qinling Mountains and in the hilly province of Sichuan. Giant pandas are generally solitary. Each adult has a defined territory and a female is not tolerant of other females in her range. Social encounters occur primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in proximity to one another will gather. After mating, the male leaves the female alone to raise the cub. Pandas were thought to fall into the crepuscular category, those who are active twice a day, at dawn and dusk; however, pandas may belong to a category all of their own, with activity peaks in the morning, afternoon and midnight. The low nutrition quality of bamboo means pandas need to eat more frequently, and due to their lack of major predators they can be active at any time of the day. Activity is highest in June and decreases in late summer to autumn with an increase from November through the following March. Activity is also directly related to the amount of sunlight during colder days. There is a significant interaction of solar radiation, such that solar radiation has a stronger positive effect on activity levels of panda bears.

Pandas communicate through vocalisation and scent marking such as clawing trees or spraying urine. They are able to climb and take shelter in hollow trees or rock crevices, but do not establish permanent dens. For this reason, pandas do not hibernate, which is similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to elevations with warmer temperatures. Pandas rely primarily on spatial memory rather than visual memory. Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans on rare occasions. Pandas have been known to cover themselves in horse manure to protect themselves against cold temperatures.

Vocalizations

The species communicates foremost through a blatting sound. Giant pandas achieve peaceful interactions through the emission of this sound. When in oestrus, a female emits a chirp. In hostile confrontations or during fights, the giant panda emits vocalizations such as a roar or growl. On the other hand, squels typically indicate inferiority and submission in a dispute. Other vocalizations include honks and moans.

Olfactory communication

Giant pandas heavily rely on olfactory communication to communicate with one another. Scent marks are used to spread these chemical cues and are placed on landmarks like rocks or trees. Chemical communication in giant pandas plays many roles in their social situations. Scent marks and odors are used to spread information about sexual status, whether a female is in estrus or not, age, gender, individuality, dominance over territory, and choice of settlement. Giant pandas communicate by excreting volatile compounds, or scent marks, through the anogenital gland. Giant pandas have unique positions in which they will scent mark. Males deposit scent marks or urine by lifting their hind leg, rubbing their backside, or standing in order to rub the anogenital gland onto a landmark. Females, however, exercise squatting or simply rubbing their genitals onto a landmark.

The season plays a major role in mediating chemical communication. Depending on the season, mainly whether it is breeding season or not, may influence which odors are prioritized. Chemical signals can have different functions in different seasons. During the non-breeding season, females prefer the odors of other females because reproduction is not their primary motivation. However, during breeding season, odors from the opposite sex will be more attractive. Because they are solitary mammals and their breeding season is so brief, female pandas secrete chemical cues in order to let males know their sexual status. The chemical cues female pandas secrete can be considered to be pheromones for sexual reproduction. Females deposit scent marks through their urine which induces an increase in androgen levels in males. Androgen is a sex hormone found in both males and females; testosterone is the major androgen produced by males. Civetone and decanoic acid are chemicals found in female urine which promote behavioral responses in males; both chemicals are considered giant panda pheromones. Male pandas also secrete chemical signals that include information about their sexual reproductivity and age, which is beneficial for a female when choosing a mate. For example, age can be useful for a female to determine sexual maturity and sperm quality. Pandas are also able to determine when the signal was placed, further aiding in the quest to find a potential mate. However, chemical cues are not just used for communication between males and females, pandas can determine individuality from chemical signals. This allows them to be able to differentiate between a potential partner or someone of the same sex, which could be a potential competitor.

Chemical cues, or odors, play an important role in how a panda chooses their habitat. Pandas look for odors that tell them not only the identity of another panda, but if they should avoid them or not. Pandas tend to avoid their species for most of the year, breeding season being the brief time of major interaction. Chemical signaling allows for avoidance and competition. Pandas whose habitats are in similar locations will collectively leave scent marks in a unique location which is termed "scent stations". When pandas come across these scent stations, they are able to identify a specific panda and the scope of their habitat. This allows pandas to be able to pursue a potential mate or avoid a potential competitor.

Pandas can assess an individual's dominance status, including their age and size, via odor cues and may choose to avoid a scent mark if the signaler's competitive ability outweighs their own. A pandas' size can be conveyed through the height of the scent mark. Since larger animals can place higher scent marks, an elevated scent mark advertises a higher competitive ability. Age must also be taken into consideration when assessing a competitor's fighting ability. For example, a mature panda will be larger than a younger, immature panda and possess an advantage during a fight.

Reproduction

A giant panda cub. At birth, the giant panda typically weighs 100 to 200 grams (3+12 to 7 ounces) and measures 15 to 17 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) long.

Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight, and may be reproductive until age 20. The mating season is between March and May, when a female goes into estrus, which lasts for two or three days and only occurs once a year. When mating, the female is in a crouching, head-down position as the male mounts her from behind. Copulation time ranges from 30 seconds to five minutes, but the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilisation. The gestation period is somewhere between 95 and 160 days - the variability is due to the fact that the fertilized egg may linger in the reproductive system for a while before implanting on the uterine wall. Giant pandas give birth to twins in about half of pregnancies. If twins are born, usually only one survives in the wild. The mother will select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker cub will die due to starvation. The mother is thought to be unable to produce enough milk for two cubs since she does not store fat. The father has no part in helping raise the cub.

When the cub is first born, it is pink, blind, and toothless, weighing only 90 to 130 g (3+14 to 4+12 oz), or about 1/800 of the mother's weight, proportionally the smallest baby of any placental mammal. It nurses from its mother's breast six to 14 times a day for up to 30 minutes at a time. For three to four hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub defenseless. One to two weeks after birth, the cub's skin turns grey where its hair will eventually become black. Slight pink colour may appear on the cub's fur, as a result of a chemical reaction between the fur and its mother's saliva. A month after birth, the colour pattern of the cub's fur is fully developed. Its fur is very soft and coarsens with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days; mothers play with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them. The cubs can eat small quantities of bamboo after six months, though mother's milk remains the primary food source for most of the first year. Giant panda cubs weigh 45 kg (100 pounds) at one year and live with their mothers until they are 18 months to two years old. The interval between births in the wild is generally two years.

Initially, the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity was by artificial insemination, as they seemed to lose their interest in mating once they were captured. This led some scientists to trying methods such as showing them videos of giant pandas mating and giving the males sildenafil (commonly known as Viagra). In the 2000s, researchers started having success with captive breeding programs, and they have now determined giant pandas have comparable breeding to some populations of the American black bear, a thriving bear species.

In July 2009, Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using frozen sperm. The technique for freezing the sperm in liquid nitrogen was first developed in 1980 and the first birth was hailed as a solution to the dwindling availability of giant panda semen, which had led to inbreeding. Panda semen, which can be frozen for decades, could be shared between different zoos to save the species. As of 2009, it is expected that zoos in destinations such as San Diego in the United States and Mexico City will be able to provide their own semen to inseminate more giant pandas.

Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by interspecific pregnancy where cloned panda embryos were implanted into the uterus of an animal of another species. This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births.

Human interaction

Early references

In Ancient China, people thought pandas to be rare and noble creatures – the Empress Dowager Bo was buried with a panda skull in her vault. The grandson of Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill. Unlike many other animals in Ancient China, pandas were rarely thought to have medical uses. The few known uses include the Sichuan tribal peoples' use of panda urine to melt accidentally swallowed needles, and the use of panda pelts to control menstruation as described in the Qin dynasty encyclopedia Erya.

The creature named mo (貘) mentioned in some ancient books has been interpreted as giant panda. The dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (Eastern Han Dynasty) says that the mo, from Shu (Sichuan), is bear-like, but yellow-and-black, although the older Erya describes mo simply as a "white leopard". The interpretation of the legendary fierce creature pixiu (貔貅) as referring to the giant panda is also common.

During the reign of the Yongle Emperor (early 15th century), his relative from Kaifeng sent him a captured zouyu (騶虞), and another zouyu was sighted in Shandong. Zouyu is a legendary "righteous" animal, which, similarly to a qilin, only appears during the rule of a benevolent and sincere monarch.

In captivity

Pandas have been kept in zoos as early as the Western Han Dynasty in China, where the writer Sima Xiangru noted that the panda was the most treasured animal in the emperor's garden of exotic animals in the capital Chang'an (present Xi'an). Not until the 1950s were pandas again recorded to have been exhibited in China's zoos. Chi Chi at the London Zoo became very popular. This influenced the World Wildlife Fund to use a panda as its symbol. A 2006 New York Times article outlined the economics of keeping pandas, which costs five times more than keeping the next most expensive animal, an elephant. American zoos generally pay the Chinese government $1 million a year in fees, as part of a typical ten-year contract. San Diego's contract with China was to expire in 2008, but got a five-year extension at about half of the previous yearly cost. The last contract, with the Memphis Zoo in Memphis, Tennessee, ended in 2013.

Adult male giant panda at the San Diego Zoo in 2004

In the 1970s, gifts of giant pandas to American and Japanese zoos formed an important part of the diplomacy of the People's Republic of China (PRC), as it marked some of the first cultural exchanges between China and the West. This practice has been termed "panda diplomacy". By 1984, however, pandas were no longer given as gifts. Instead, China began to offer pandas to other nations only on 10-year loans for a fee of up to US$1,000,000 per year and with the provision that any cubs born during the loan are the property of China. As a result of this change in policy, nearly all the pandas in the world are owned by China, and pandas leased to foreign zoos and all cubs are eventually returned to China. As of 2022, Xin Xin at the Chapultepec Zoo in Mexico City, was the last living descendant of the gifted pandas.

Since 1998, because of a WWF lawsuit, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service only allows US zoos to import a panda if the zoo can ensure China channels more than half of its loan fee into conservation efforts for giant pandas and their habitat. In May 2005, China offered a breeding pair to Taiwan. The issue became embroiled in cross-Strait relations – due to both the underlying symbolism and technical issues such as whether the transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international" or whether any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange. A contest in 2006 to name the pandas was held in the mainland, resulting in the politically charged names Tuan Tuan and Yuan Yuan (from simplified Chinese: 团圆; traditional Chinese: 團圓; pinyin: tuanyuan; lit. 'reunion', implying reunification). China's offer was initially rejected by Chen Shui-bian, then President of Taiwan. However, when Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in 2008, the offer was accepted and the pandas arrived in December of that year.

Conservation

The giant panda is a vulnerable species, threatened by continued habitat loss and habitat fragmentation, and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity. Its range is confined to a small portion on the western edge of its historical range, which stretched through southern and eastern China, northern Myanmar, and northern Vietnam. The species is scattered into more than 30 subpopulations of relatively few animals. Building of roads and human settlement near panda habitat, result in population declines. Diseases from domesticated pets and livestock is another threat. By 2100, it is estimated that the distribution of giant pandas will shrink by up to 100%, mainly due to the effects of climate change. The giant panda is listed on CITES Appendix I, meaning trade of their parts is prohibited and that they require this protection to avoid extinction. They have been protected and placed in category 1, by the 1988 Wildlife Protection Act.

The giant panda has been a target of poaching by locals since ancient times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West. Starting in the 1930s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China because of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, but pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals. The population boom in China after 1949 created stress on the pandas' habitat and the subsequent famines led to the increased hunting of wildlife, including pandas. After the Chinese economic reform, demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led to illegal poaching for the black market, acts generally ignored by the local officials at the time. In 1963, the PRC government set up Wolong National Nature Reserve to save the declining panda population.

Closeup of a seven-month-old panda cub

The giant panda is among the world's most adored and protected rare animals, and is one of the few in the world whose natural inhabitant status was able to gain a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation. The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, located in the southwest province of Sichuan and covering seven natural reserves, were inscribed onto the World Heritage List in 2006. A 2015 paper found that the giant panda can serve as an umbrella species as the preservation of their habitat also helps other endemic species in China, including 70% of the country's forest birds, 70% of mammals and 31% of amphibians.

In 2012, Earthwatch Institute, a global nonprofit that teams volunteers with scientists to conduct important environmental research, launched a program called "On the Trail of Giant Panda". This program, based in the Wolong National Nature Reserve, allows volunteers to work up close with pandas cared for in captivity, and help them adapt to life in the wild, so that they may breed, and live longer and healthier lives. Efforts to preserve the panda bear populations in China have come at the expense of other animals in the region, including snow leopards, wolves, and dholes. In order to improve living and mating conditions for the fragmented populations of pandas, nearly 70 natural reserves have been combined to form the Giant Panda National Park in 2020. With a size of 10,500 square miles, the park is roughly three times as large as Yellowstone National Park and incorporates the Wolong National Nature Reserve. Small, isolated populations run the risk of inbreeding and smaller genetic variety makes the individuals more vulnerable to various defects and genetic mutation.

Population

In 2006, scientists reported that the number of pandas living in the wild may have been underestimated at about 1,000. Previous population surveys had used conventional methods to estimate the size of the wild panda population, but using a new method that analyzes DNA from panda droppings, scientists believed the wild population were as large as 3,000. In 2006, there were 40 panda reserves in China, compared to just 13 reserves in 1998. As the species has been reclassified from "endangered" to "vulnerable" since 2016, the conservation efforts are thought to be working. Furthermore, in response to this reclassification, the State Forestry Administration of China announced that they would not accordingly lower the conservation level for panda, and would instead reinforce the conservation efforts.

In 2020, the panda population of the new national park was already above 1,800 individuals, which is roughly 80 percent of the entire panda population in China. Establishing the new protected area in the Sichuan Province also gives various other endangered or threatened species, like the Siberian tiger, the possibility to improve their living conditions by offering them a habitat. Other species who benefit from the protection of their habitat include the snow leopard, the golden snub-nosed monkey, the red panda and the complex-toothed flying squirrel.

In July 2021, Chinese conservation authorities announced that giant pandas are no longer endangered in the wild following years of conservation efforts, with a population in the wild exceeding 1,800. China has received international praise for its conservation of the species, which has also helped the country establish itself as a leader in endangered species conservation.: 8 

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Swaisgood, R.; Wang, D. & Wei, F. (2017) . "Ailuropoda melanoleuca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T712A121745669. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  2. ^ David, A. (1869). "Voyage en Chine". Bulletin des Nouvelles Archives du Muséum. 5: 13. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  3. ^ a b c "giant panda (mammal)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  4. ^ Lindburg, Donald G.; Baragona, Karen (2004). Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23867-2.
  5. ^ O'Brien, S.J.; Nash, W.G.; Wildt, D.E.; Bush, M.E. & Benveniste, R.E. (1985). "A molecular solution to the riddle of the giant panda's phylogeny". Nature. 317 (6033): 140–144. Bibcode:1985Natur.317..140O. doi:10.1038/317140a0. PMID 4033795. S2CID 4352629.
  6. ^ a b Krause, J.; Unger, T.; Noçon, A.; Malaspinas, A.; Kolokotronis, S.; Stiller, M.; Soibelzon, L.; Spriggs, H.; Dear, P. H.; Briggs, A. W.; Bray, S. C. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Rabeder, G.; Matheus, P.; Cooper, A.; Slatkin, M.; Pääbo, S. & Hofreiter, M. (2008). "Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8 (220): 220. Bibcode:2008BMCEE...8..220K. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-220. PMC 2518930. PMID 18662376.
  7. ^ Yu, L.; Li, Y.i-W.; Ryder, O. A.; Zhang, Y.-P. (2007). "Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (198): 198. Bibcode:2007BMCEE...7..198Y. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-198. PMC 2151078. PMID 17956639.
  8. ^ "Behind the News – Panda Granny". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. panda n. 1.
  10. ^ "Animal Info – Red Panda". Archived from the original on 1 September 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
  11. ^ Glatston, A. R. (2021). "Introduction". In Glatston, A. R. (ed.). Red Panda: Biology and Conservation of the First Panda (Second ed.). London: Academic Press. pp. xix–xxix. ISBN 978-0-12-823753-3.
  12. ^ Harper, Donald (2013), "The Cultural History of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Early China", Early China 35/36: 185-224. (abstract Archived 24 January 2022 at the Wayback Machine)
  13. ^ a b c "Discussion about the Chinese name for giant panda (in Chinese)". Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2008.
  14. ^ "Government Information Office will now use dàxióngmāo as the proper name (in Chinese)". 聯合報. 9 August 1990. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  15. ^ ""bear cat" or "cat bear" (in Chinese)". 聯合報. 29 December 1987. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  16. ^ a b Wan, Wu & Fang 2005.
  17. ^ Zhao, Yan; Chen, Yi-ping; Zheng, Yingjuan; Ma, Qingyi; Jiang, Yao (November 2020). "Quantifying the heavy metal risks from anthropogenic contributions in Sichuan panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca melanoleuca) habitat". Science of the Total Environment. 745: 140941. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.745n0941Z. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140941. ISSN 0048-9697.
  18. ^ Hammond, Paula (2010). The Atlas of Endangered Animals: Wildlife Under Threat Around the World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-7614-7872-0.
  19. ^ Qiu-Hong Wan; Hua Wu; Sheng-Guo Fang (2005). "A new subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from Shaanxi, China". Journal of Mammalogy. 86 (2): 397–402. doi:10.1644/BRB-226.1. JSTOR 4094359.
  20. ^ Zhao, Shancen; Zheng, Pingping; Dong, Shanshan; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Qi; Guo, Xiaosen; Hu, Yibo; He, Weiming; Zhang, Shanning; Fan, Wei; Zhu, Lifeng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xuemei; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Hemin (January 2013). "Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation". Nature Genetics. 45 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1038/ng.2494. ISSN 1546-1718. PMID 23242367.
  21. ^ Yu, Li; Li, Yi-Wei; Ryder, Oliver A.; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2007). "Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (198): 198. Bibcode:2007BMCEE...7..198Y. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-198. PMC 2151078. PMID 17956639.
  22. ^ Kumar, V.; Lammers, F.; Bidon, T.; Pfenninger, M.; Kolter, L.; Nilsson, M. A.; Janke, A. (2017). "The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow across species". Scientific Reports. 7: 46487. Bibcode:2017NatSR...746487K. doi:10.1038/srep46487. PMC 5395953. PMID 28422140.
  23. ^ Scheff, D. (2002). Giant Pandas. Animals of the rain forest (illustrated ed.). Heinemann-Raintree Library. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-7398-5529-8.
  24. ^ Liu, Zheng-Xiao; Dayananda, Buddhi; Jeffree, Ross A.; Tian, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Yu, Bing; Zheng, Yong; Jing, Yang; Si, Pei-Yan; Li, Jun-Qing (1 December 2020). "Giant panda distribution and habitat preference: The influence of sympatric large mammals". Global Ecology and Conservation. 24: e01221. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01221. ISSN 2351-9894.
  25. ^ Bai, Wenke; Connor, Thomas; Zhang, Jindong; Yang, Hongbo; Dong, Xin; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Caiquan (1 April 2018). "Long-term distribution and habitat changes of protected wildlife: giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve, China". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25 (12): 11400–11408. Bibcode:2018ESPR...2511400B. doi:10.1007/s11356-018-1407-6. ISSN 1614-7499. PMID 29423692.
  26. ^ Zhang, Yuke; Wu, Yongjie; Zhang, Qiongyue; Ran, Jianghong; Price, Megan (August 2018). "Distribution of a giant panda population influenced by land cover". The Journal of Wildlife Management. 82 (6): 1199–1209. Bibcode:2018JWMan..82.1199Z. doi:10.1002/jwmg.21477. ISSN 0022-541X.
  27. ^ Hull, Vanessa; Roloff, Gary; Zhang, Jindong; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Shiqiang; Huang, Jinyan; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo (2014). "A synthesis of giant panda habitat selection". Ursus. 25 (2): 148–162. doi:10.2192/URSUS-D-13-00011.1. ISSN 1537-6176. JSTOR 24643781.
  28. ^ Yang, Zihan; Wang, Xiaorong; Kang, Dongwei (October 2023). "Characteristics and Roles of Large Trees in Giant Panda Habitat of Wanglang Nature Reserve". Forests. 14 (10): 1993. doi:10.3390/f14101993. ISSN 1999-4907.
  29. ^ Songer, Melissa; Delion, Melanie; Biggs, Alex; Huang, Qiongyu (8 March 2012). "Modeling Impacts of Climate Change on Giant Panda Habitat". International Journal of Ecology. 2012: e108752. doi:10.1155/2012/108752. ISSN 1687-9708.
  30. ^ He, Ke; Dai, Qiang; Gu, Xianghui; Zhang, Zejun; Zhou, Jiang; Qi, Dunwu; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Biao; Yang, Zhisong (1 February 2019). "Effects of roads on giant panda distribution: a mountain range scale evaluation". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 1110. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.1110H. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37447-0. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6358623. PMID 30710093.
  31. ^ a b Li, Renqiang; Xu, Ming; Wong, Michelle Hang Gi; Qiu, Shuai; Li, Xinhai; Ehrenfeld, Davis; Li, Dianmo (1 February 2015). "Climate change threatens giant panda protection in the 21st century". Biological Conservation. 182: 93–101. Bibcode:2015BCons.182...93L. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.037. ISSN 0006-3207.
  32. ^ a b Giant Panda, Arkive, archived from the original on 23 December 2014
  33. ^ "Physical Description". Giant Panda Species Survival Plan. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  34. ^ Boitani, Luigi (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster / Touchstone Books. ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  35. ^ a b Brown, Gary (1996). Great Bear Almanac. The Lyons Press. p. 340. ISBN 1-55821-474-7.
  36. ^ a b "Global Species Programme – Giant panda". World Wildlife Fund. 14 November 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  37. ^ John Chorn; Robert S. Hoffmann (29 December 1978). "Ailuropoda melanoleuca" (PDF). Mammalian Species (110). American Society of Mammalogists: 1–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  38. ^ "Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca". Animal Fact Guide. 2011. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  39. ^ a b c d e Dudley, Karen (1997). Giant Pandas. Untamed world (Illustrated ed.). Weigl Educational Publishers Limited. pp. 9–26. ISBN 0-919879-87-X.
  40. ^ a b c Caro, Tim; Walker, Hannah; Rossman, Zoe; Hendrix, Megan; Stankowich, Theodore (2017). "Why is the giant panda black and white?". Behavioral Ecology. 28 (3): 657–667. doi:10.1093/beheco/arx008.
  41. ^ Nokelainen, Ossi; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Fuwen; Caro, Tim (2021). "The giant panda is cryptic". Scientific Reports. 11 (21287): 21287. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1121287N. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-00742-4. PMC 8553760. PMID 34711890.
  42. ^ Morell, Virginia (1 March 2017). "How pandas got their patches". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). doi:10.1126/science.aal0840. ISSN 0036-8075.
  43. ^ Ellis, Richard (2004). No turning back: the life and death of animal species (illustrated ed.). HarperCollins. p. 315. ISBN 0-06-055803-2.
  44. ^ Figueirido, Borja; Zhijie Jack Tseng, Alberto Mart ́ın-Serra (July 2013). "Skull shape evolution in durophagous carnivorans". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 67 (7): 1975–93. doi:10.1111/evo.12059. PMID 23815654. S2CID 23918004.
  45. ^ Christiansen, Per; Wroe, Stephen (2007). "Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores". Ecology. 88 (2): 347–358. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[347:BFAEAT]2.0.CO;2. PMID 17479753. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  46. ^ Morris, Paul; Morris, Susan F. "The Panda's Thumb". Athro Limited. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  47. ^ Abella, Juan; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Valenciano, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Ercoli, Marcos D.; Hontecillas, Daniel; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge (3 June 2015). "Tracing the origin of the panda's thumb". The Science of Nature. 102 (5): 35. Bibcode:2015SciNa.102...35A. doi:10.1007/s00114-015-1286-3. hdl:11336/41623. ISSN 1432-1904. PMID 26036823.
  48. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Su, Denise F.; Jablonski, Nina G.; Ji, Xueping; Kelley, Jay; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Deng, Tao (30 June 2022). "Earliest giant panda false thumb suggests conflicting demands for locomotion and feeding". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 10538. Bibcode:2022NatSR..1210538W. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-13402-y. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9246853. PMID 35773284.
  49. ^ a b c d Earth's Changing Environment. Learn & Explore. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-61535-339-2.
  50. ^ "'Oldest' panda in captivity Jia Jia dies at the age of 38". BBC. 16 October 2016. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  51. ^ a b c Li, R.; et al. (2010). "The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome". Nature. 463 (21): 311–317. Bibcode:2010Natur.463..311L. doi:10.1038/nature08696. PMC 3951497. PMID 20010809.
  52. ^ Zhang, W.; Liu, W.; Hou, R.; Zhang, L.; Schmitz-Esser, S.; Sun, H.; Xie, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Li, L.; Yue, B.; Huang, H.; Wang, H.; Shen, F.; Zhang, Z. (2018). "Age-associated microbiome shows the giant panda lives on hemicelluloses, not on cellulose". The ISME Journal. 12 (5): 1319–1328. Bibcode:2018ISMEJ..12.1319Z. doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0051-y. PMC 5931968. PMID 29391488.
  53. ^ Zhu, L.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Ran; Xu, L.; Chen, H.; Gu, X.; Wu, T.; Yang, X. (2018). "Potential mechanism of detoxification of cyanide compounds by gut microbiomes of bamboo-eating Pandas". mSphere. 3 (3). doi:10.1128/mSphere.00229-18. PMC 6001608. PMID 29898983.
  54. ^ Huang, H.; Yie, S.; Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Cai, Z.; Zhang, W.; Lan, J.; Huang, X.; Luo, L.; Cai, Ka.; Hou, R.; Zhang, Z. (2016). "Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". Scientific Reports. 6: 34700. Bibcode:2016NatSR...634700H. doi:10.1038/srep34700. PMC 5050549. PMID 27703267.
  55. ^ Huang, Guangping; Wang, Le; Li, Jian; Hou, Rong; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zhilin; Qu, Qingyue; Zhou, Wenliang; Nie, Yonggang; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Yingjie; Yan, Li; Wei, Hong; Wei, Fuwen (January 2022). "Seasonal shift of the gut microbiome synchronizes host peripheral circadian rhythm for physiological adaptation to a low-fat diet in the giant panda". Cell Reports. 38 (3): 110203. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110203. ISSN 2211-1247. PMID 35045306.
  56. ^ a b "Giant Panda Facts". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  57. ^ a b Zeng, Ying; Han, Han; Gong, Yihua; Qubi, Shibu; Chen, Minghua; Qiu, Lan; Huang, Youyou; Zhou, Hong; Wei, Wei (1 April 2023). "Feeding habits and foraging patch selection strategy of the giant panda in the Meigu Dafengding National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 30 (17): 49125–49135. Bibcode:2023ESPR...3049125Z. doi:10.1007/s11356-023-25769-0. ISSN 1614-7499. PMID 36773257.
  58. ^ Finley, T. G.; Sikes, Robert S.; Parsons, Jennifer L.; Rude, Brian J.; Bissell, Heidi A.; Ouellette, John R. (2011). "Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diet". Zoo Biology. 30 (2): 121–133. doi:10.1002/zoo.20340. PMID 20814990.
  59. ^ Jin, Lei; Huang, Yan; Yang, Shengzhi; Wu, Daifu; Li, Caiwu; Deng, Wenwen; Zhao, Ke; He, Yongguo; Li, Bei; Zhang, Guiquan; Xiong, Yaowu; Wei, Rongping; Li, Guo; Wu, Hongning; Zhang, Hemin (20 May 2021). "Diet, habitat environment and lifestyle conversion affect the gut microbiomes of giant pandas". Science of the Total Environment. 770: 145316. Bibcode:2021ScTEn.770n5316J. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145316. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 33517011.
  60. ^ a b c Ciochon, R. L.; Eaves-Johnson, K. L. (2007). "Bamboozled! The Curious Natural History of the Giant Panda Family". Scitizen. Archived from the original on 21 July 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  61. ^ a b c d Zhao S, Zheng P, Dong S, Zhan X, Wu Q, Guo X, Hu Y, He W, Zhang S, Fan W, Zhu L, Li D, Zhang X, Chen Q, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Jin X, Zhang J, Yang H, Wang J, Wang J, Wei F (January 2013). "Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation". Nature Genetics. 45 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1038/ng.2494. PMID 23242367. S2CID 1261505.
  62. ^ a b Jin, C.; Ciochon, R. L.; Dong, W.; Hunt Jr, R. M.; Liu, J.; Jaeger, M.; Zhu, Q. (2007). "The first skull of the earliest giant panda". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (26): 10932–10937. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10410932J. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704198104. PMC 1904166. PMID 17578912.
  63. ^ a b Jin, K.; Xue, C.; Wu, X.; Qian, J.; Zhu, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yonezawa, T.; Crabbe, M. J. C.; Cao, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Zhong, Y.; Zheng, Y. (2011). "Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals". PLOS ONE. 6 (7): 22602. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...622602J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022602. PMC 3144909. PMID 21818345.
  64. ^ a b Li, D.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Stapleton, C. (2007). "Fargesia dracocephala". In Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y. (eds.). Flora of China. Vol. 22. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 93. Archived from the original on 9 January 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  65. ^ Li, D.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Stapleton, C. (2007). "Fargesia rufa". In Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y. (eds.). Flora of China. Vol. 22. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 81. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  66. ^ Dolberg, F. (1992). "Progress in the utilization of urea-ammonia treated crop residues: biological and socio-economic aspects of animal production and application of the technology on small farms". University of Arhus. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  67. ^ Lumpkin & Seidensticker 2007, pp. 63–64 (page numbers as per the 2002 edition)
  68. ^ Ma, Ying-Jie; Wang, Meng; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fu-Wen; Nie, Yong-Gang (2023). "Identifying priority protection areas of key food resources of the giant panda" (PDF). Zoological Research. 44 (5): 860–866. doi:10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.526. ISSN 2095-8137. PMC 10559099. PMID 37537140.
  69. ^ Li, Sheng; McShea, William J.; Wang, Dajun; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Li; Shen, Xiaoli (October 2020). "Retreat of large carnivores across the giant panda distribution range". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 4 (10): 1327–1331. Bibcode:2020NatEE...4.1327L. doi:10.1038/s41559-020-1260-0. ISSN 2397-334X.
  70. ^ Lai, Xin-Lei; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Gao, Hua-Lei; Wang, Meng; Gao, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Wei; Wei, Fu-Wen; Nie, Yong-Gang (18 May 2020). "Impact of sympatric carnivores on den selection of wild giant pandas". Zoological Research. 41 (3): 273–280. doi:10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.027. ISSN 2095-8137. PMC 7231472. PMID 32279465.
  71. ^ Wang, Fang; McShea, William J.; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng (June 2015). "Shared resources between giant panda and sympatric wild and domestic mammals". Biological Conservation. 186: 319–325. Bibcode:2015BCons.186..319W. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.032. ISSN 0006-3207.
  72. ^ Feng, Bin; Bai, Wenke; Fan, Xueyang; Fu, Mingxia; Song, Xinqiang; Liu, Jingyi; Qin, Weirui; Zhang, Jindong; Qi, Dunwu; Hou, Rong (April 2023). "Species coexistence and niche interaction between sympatric giant panda and Chinese red panda: A spatiotemporal approach". Ecology and Evolution. 13 (4): e9937. Bibcode:2023EcoEv..13E9937F. doi:10.1002/ece3.9937. ISSN 2045-7758. PMC 10121233. PMID 37091556.
  73. ^ Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan (2015). "Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda". Parasite. 22: 30. doi:10.1051/parasite/2015030. ISSN 1776-1042. PMC 4626621. PMID 26514595.
  74. ^ Wang, Tao; Xie, Yue; Zheng, Youle; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Koehler, Anson V.; Gasser, Robin B. (2018), Parasites of the Giant Panda: A Risk Factor in the Conservation of a Species, Advances in Parasitology, vol. 99, Elsevier, pp. 1–33, doi:10.1016/bs.apar.2017.12.003, ISBN 978-0-12-815192-1, PMC 7103118, PMID 29530307
  75. ^ a b "Panda behavior & habitat". World Wildlife Federation China. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  76. ^ "Giant Panda". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 17 July 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  77. ^ Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Xu, Weihua; Yang, Hongbo; McConnell, William J.; Li, Rengui; Liu, Dian; Huang, Yan; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo (24 November 2015). "Activity patterns of the giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca )". Journal of Mammalogy. 96 (6): 1116–1127. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv118. ISSN 0022-2372.
  78. ^ a b c Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyang; Zhou, Shiqiang (24 November 2015). "Activity patterns of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". Journal of Mammalogy. 96 (6): 1116–1127. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv118. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  79. ^ Bi, Wenlei; Hou, Rong; Owens, Jacob R.; Spotila, James R.; Valitutto, Marc; Yin, Guan; Paladino, Frank V.; Wu, Fanqi; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe (17 November 2021). "Field metabolic rates of giant pandas reveal energetic adaptations". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 22391. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1122391B. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-01872-5. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8599739. PMID 34789821.
  80. ^ Deborah Smith Bailey (January 2004). "Understanding the giant panda". American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 14 June 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
  81. ^ "Teenager hospitalized after panda attack in Chinese zoo". Fox News/Associated Press. 23 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
  82. ^ "Panda attacks man in Chinese zoo". BBC News. 22 November 2008. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  83. ^ "Giant panda in China bites third victim". CNN News. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 18 January 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
  84. ^ Zhou, Wenliang; Yang, Shilong; Li, Bowen; Nie, Yonggang; Luo, Anna; Huang, Guangping; Liu, Xuefeng; Lai, Ren; Wei, Fuwen (2 December 2020). "Why wild giant pandas frequently roll in horse manure". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (51): 32493–32498. Bibcode:2020PNAS..11732493Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.2004640117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7768701. PMID 33288697.
  85. ^ Charlton, Benjamin D.; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Owen, Megan A.; Zhang, Hemin; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (October 2018). "Vocal behaviour predicts mating success in giant pandas". Royal Society Open Science. 5 (10): 181323. doi:10.1098/rsos.181323. ISSN 2054-5703. PMC 6227945. PMID 30473861.
  86. ^ a b c d e Hagey, Lee; MacDonald, Edith (2003). "Chemical cues identify gender and individuality in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 29 (3): 1479–1488. doi:10.1023/A:1024225806263. PMID 12918929. S2CID 22335820 – via SpringerLink.
  87. ^ Zhu, Jiao; Arena, Simona; Spinelli, Silvia; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Cambillau, Christian; Scaloni, Andrea; Wang, Guirong; Pelosi, Paolo (14 November 2017). "Reverse chemical ecology: Olfactory proteins from the giant panda and their interactions with putative pheromones and bamboo volatiles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (46): E9802–E9810. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114E9802Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.1711437114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5699065. PMID 29078359.
  88. ^ a b c d e White, Angela M.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zhang, Hemin (2002). "The Highs and Lows of Chemical Communication in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): Effect of Scent Deposition Height on Signal Discrimination". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 51 (6): 519–529. doi:10.1007/s00265-002-0473-3. JSTOR 4602087. S2CID 42122274.
  89. ^ a b c d White, A.M.; Swaisgood, R.R.; Zhang, H. (2004). "Urinary chemosignals in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): Seasonal and developmental effects on signal discrimination". Journal of Zoology. 264 (3): 231–238. doi:10.1017/S095283690400562X.
  90. ^ a b c d e Wilson, A.E.; Sparks, D.L.; Knott, K.K.; Willard, S.; Brown, A. (2020). "Simultaneous choice bioassays accompanied by physiological changes identify civetone and decanoic acid as pheromone candidates for giant pandas". Zoo Biology. 39 (3): 176–185. doi:10.1002/zoo.21532. PMID 31919913. S2CID 210133833.
  91. ^ a b c d e f g Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lindburg, Donald; White, Angela M.; Zhang, Hemin; Zhou, Xiaoping (31 December 2019). "7. Chemical Communication in Giant Pandas". Giant Pandas. University of California Press. pp. 106–120. doi:10.1525/9780520930162-015. ISBN 978-0-520-93016-2. S2CID 226766316.
  92. ^ Nie, Yonggang; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zhang, Zejun; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Yisheng; Wei, Fuwen (2012). "Giant panda scent-marking strategies in the wild: role of season, sex and marking surface". Animal Behaviour. 84 (1): 39–44. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.03.026. ISSN 0003-3472. S2CID 53256022.
  93. ^ "Animal Info – Giant Panda". Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
  94. ^ "Giant Panda Reproduction" (PDF). National Zoological Park. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  95. ^ a b Kleiman, Devra G. "Giant Panda Reproduction". Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
  96. ^ Ruane, Michael E.; Koh, Elizabeth; Weil, Martin (23 August 2015). "National Zoo's giant panda Mei Xiang gives birth to two cubs hours apart". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  97. ^ "Panda Facts". Pandas International. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  98. ^ Guinness World Records 2013, Page 050, hardcover edition. ISBN 978-1-904994-87-9
  99. ^ "Panda Update: September Cub Exam". Discovery Communications, LLC. 4 May 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  100. ^ "National Zoo's Giant Panda Undergoes Artificial Insemination". NBC. Associated Press. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.[permanent dead link]
  101. ^ Prapanya, Narunart (25 January 2006). "'Panda porn' to encourage mating". Time Warner. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  102. ^ "Pandas unexcited by Viagra". BBC News. 9 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  103. ^ W., Lynne (July 2006). "Pandas, Inc". National Geographic Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  104. ^ a b "Baby panda born from frozen sperm". BBC. 25 July 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  105. ^ "First panda cub born using frozen sperm". The Irish Times. 25 July 2009. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  106. ^ a b Tran, Tini (24 July 2009). "China announces first panda from frozen sperm". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  107. ^ "World's 1st giant panda born from frozen sperm in SW China". Xinhua News Agency. 24 July 2009. Archived from the original on 26 December 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  108. ^ Chen, D. Y.; Wen, D. C.; Zhang, Y. P.; Sun, Q. Y.; Han, Z. M.; Liu, Z. H.; Shi, P.; Li, J. S.; Xiangyu, J. G.; Lian, L.; Kou, Z. H.; Wu, Y. Q.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, P. Y.; Zhang, H. M. (2002). "Interspecies implantation and mitochondria fate of panda-rabbit cloned embryos". Biology of Reproduction. 67 (2): 637–642. doi:10.1095/biolreprod67.2.637. PMID 12135908.
  109. ^ a b Schaller 1993, p. 61.
  110. ^ Shuowen Jiezi, Chapter 10, radical 豸: "貘:似熊而黃黑色,出蜀中" ("Mo: like bear, but yellow-and-black, comes from Shu").
  111. ^ Erya, Chapter "釋獸" ("About animals") Archived 4 December 2021 at the Wayback Machine: "貘,白豹" (Mo, white leopard).
  112. ^ China Giant Panda Museum: Historical Records in Ancient China Archived 6 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Supposed Chinese historical terminology appears in the Chinese version of this article, 我国古代的历史记载 Archived 6 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  113. ^ Duyvendak, J.J.L. (1939). "The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century". T'oung Pao. Second Series. 34 (5): 402. JSTOR 4527170.
  114. ^ Schaller 1993, p. 62.
  115. ^ "Giant Panda: Overview". World Wildlife Fund. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  116. ^ a b Goodman, Brenda (12 February 2006). "Eats Shoots, Leaves and Much of Zoos' Budgets". The New York Times. Atlanta. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  117. ^ "Zoo negotiates lower price to rent bears from China". SignOnSanDiego.com. 13 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
  118. ^ Buckingham, Kathleen Carmel; David, Jonathan Neil William; Jepson, Paul (September 2013). "Environmental Reviews and Case Studies: Diplomats and Refugees: Panda Diplomacy, Soft "Cuddly" Power, and the New Trajectory in Panda Conservation". Environmental Practice. 15 (3): 262–270. doi:10.1017/S1466046613000185. ISSN 1466-0466. S2CID 154378167. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  119. ^ "In memory of panda queen nicknamed "Granny Basi," five amazing things you may not know about pandas". Newsweek. 16 September 2017. Archived from the original on 3 June 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  120. ^ Fikes, Bradely (25 March 2019). "Last pandas at San Diego Zoo are leaving". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 4 June 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  121. ^ "The last panda in Latin America? Mexico to decide what happens next". NBC News. 18 November 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2024. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  122. ^ 63 FR 45839
  123. ^ "History of Panda Conservation". World Wildlife Fund. 2020. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  124. ^ China's Panda Politics. Newsweek. 15 October 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2008. Archived 10 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  125. ^ China sends panda peace offering Archived 27 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. 28 December 2008.
  126. ^ Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Wei, Fuwen; Wildt, David E.; Kouba, Andrew J.; Zhang, Zejun (23 April 2010). "Giant panda conservation science: how far we have come". Biology Letters. 6 (2): 143–145. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0786. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 2865067. PMID 19864275.
  127. ^ "Giant panda". CITES. 14 August 1983. Retrieved 27 April 2024.
  128. ^ Reid, Donald G. (1994). "The Focus and Role of Biological Research in Giant Panda Conservation". Bears: Their Biology and Management. 9: 23–33. doi:10.2307/3872681. ISSN 1936-0614. JSTOR 3872681.
  129. ^ "About Wolong". Wolong National Natural Reserve. 7 May 2005. Archived from the original on 1 December 2006.
  130. ^ "Pandas gain world heritage status". BBC. 12 July 2006. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  131. ^ Benn, Joanna (13 July 2006). "Panda sanctuary in China added to World Heritage list". WWF. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  132. ^ "Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries – Wolong, Mt Siguniang and Jiajin Mountains". Unesco WHC. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  133. ^ Pimm, Stuart L.; Li, Binbin V. (2015). "China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda". Conservation Biology. 30 (2): 329–339. doi:10.1111/cobi.12618. PMID 26332026. S2CID 34750531.
  134. ^ "Earthwatch: On the Trail of Giant Panda". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  135. ^ Jessie Yeung (4 August 2020). "China's focus on panda conservation has come at the cost of other species: study". CNN. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  136. ^ "China's National Panda Park Will Be Three Times the Size of Yellowstone". Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  137. ^ Briggs, Helen (20 June 2006). "Hope for future of giant panda". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  138. ^ The Panda is still endangered species, and the conservation efforts still need to be reinforced Archived 13 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine State Forestry Administration of the People's Republic of China (in Chinese)
  139. ^ "China forges ahead with ambitious national park plan". National Geographic Society. 27 August 2020. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  140. ^ a b "Giant pandas no longer endangered in the wild, China announces". TheGuardian.com. 9 July 2021. Archived from the original on 11 July 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  141. ^ "Conservation efforts have saved China's giant pandas from the endangered species list". CBS News. 10 July 2021. Archived from the original on 11 July 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  142. ^ Esarey, Ashley; Haddad, Mary Alice; Lewis, Joanna I.; Harrell, Stevan, eds. (2020). Greening East Asia: The Rise of the Eco-Developmental State. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-74791-0. JSTOR j.ctv19rs1b2.
Bibliography

External links